Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.
Sex is an important and complex feature of organisms, which is controlled by the genetic and environmental factors. The genetic factors, i. However, not all the related genes play the same roles, and some key genes play a vital role in the sex determination and differentiation. With the development of the modern genetics, a great progress on the key genes has been made in sex determination. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of sex determination and the strategy of how to study the key genes in sex determination. It will help us to understand the mechanism of sex determination better in the teaching of genetics. Vertebrate sex-determining genes play musical chairs. Sexual reproduction is one of the most highly conserved processes in evolution. However, the genetic and cellular mechanisms making the decision of whether the undifferentiated gonad of animal embryos develops either towards male or female are manifold and quite diverse.
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, possesses diverse pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. Major reasons contributing to the low plasma and tissue levels of curcumin appear to be due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To improve the bioavailability of curcumin, numerous approaches have been undertaken. These approaches involve, first, the use of adjuvant like piperine that interferes with glucuronidation; second, the use of liposomal curcumin; third, curcumin nanoparticles; fourth, the use of curcumin phospholipid complex; and fifth, the use of structural analogues of curcumin e.
Intraspecific variation in mitochondrial genome sequence, structure, and gene content in Silene vulgaris, an angiosperm with pervasive cytoplasmic male sterility. In angiosperms , mitochondrial-encoded genes can cause cytoplasmic male sterility CMS , resulting in the coexistence of female and hermaphroditic individuals gynodioecy. We compared four complete mitochondrial genomes from the gynodioecious species Silene vulgaris and found unprecedented amounts of intraspecific diversity for plant mitochondrial DNA mtDNA. Remarkably, only about half of overall sequence content is shared between any pair of genomes. The genomes exhibit essentially no conservation of synteny and are highly repetitive, with evidence of reciprocal recombination occurring even across short repeats angiosperm mtDNA. Southern blot analysis of one of these chromosomes indicated a complex in vivo structure consisting of both monomeric circles and multimeric forms. We conclude that S. PubMed Central. Allopolyploidization accounts for a significant fraction of speciation events in many eukaryotic lineages. However, existing phylogenetic and dating methods require tree-like topologies and are unable to handle the network-like phylogenetic relationships of lineages containing allopolyploids.