The search for publications intentionally identified only studies reported in English or German. Studies of trans persons who were under age were excluded too. During the study selection process we excluded according to the mentioned criteria those studies that were not able to contribute to answering our research question figure. Furthermore, we searched the reference lists of all selected articles in order to be able to include further studies that were not found in the databases. This yielded four additional studies that met the inclusion criteria.
Who Should Undergo & Expected Results
Definition & Overview
Facial feminization surgery, or FFS, is a surgery that involves the cosmetic modification of your facial characteristics. The goal is to soften masculinized features into a shape more typically recognized as feminine. It can appeal to cisgender women as well. FFS is tailored to each person and can encompass up to every aspect of the face and neck. FFS mostly focuses on bone structure and nose shape. Soft tissue work, such as face-lifts and neck lifts, can be incorporated when necessary. However, some insurers are beginning to cover FFS from select surgeons. Insurers often classify FFS as an elective cosmetic procedure.
It is also medically known as feminizing or masculinizing, genitoplasty, penectomy or vaginoplasty, orchiectomy, metoidioplasty, or phalloplasty, depending on the original and intended gender. It is taken advantage by transgender individuals to shift from their biological gender to their identified sex as a treatment for a condition known as gender dysphoria. Sex change surgery is performed on people who are identified as transgenders, which are referred to as transsexuals after the surgery. The surgery should only be performed on people who are mentally healthy, a state that will be determined by a mental health evaluation that is conducted prior to the surgery. It is also reserved for patients who are proven to have gender dysphoria, a medical condition that is formerly known as gender identity disorder. People with this condition feel that they should be of the opposite gender, and this feeling causes distress in their lives. In some people, hormone therapy alone can achieve this, whereas in some people, minor gender-related surgeries suffice. This is conducted by a psychologist or a mental health specialist who has experience in dealing with gender issues.
Sex reassignment surgery SRS , also known as gender reassignment surgery GRS and several other names, is a surgical procedure or procedures by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender. It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. Professional medical organizations have established Standards of Care that apply before someone can apply for and receive reassignment surgery, including psychological evaluation, and a period of real-life experience living in the desired gender. Feminization surgeries are surgeries that result in anatomy that is typically gendered female. These surgeries include vaginoplasty , feminizing augmentation mammoplasty , orchiectomy , facial feminization surgery , reduction thyrochondroplasty tracheal shave , and voice feminization surgery among others. Masculinization surgeries are surgeries that result in anatomy that is typically gendered male. These surgeries include chest masculinization surgery top surgery , metoidioplasty , phalloplasty , scrotoplasty , and hysterectomy. In addition to SRS, patients may need to follow a lifelong course of masculinizing or feminizing hormone replacement therapy. There are numerous other expressions that are used to refer to this type of surgery apart from sexual reassignment surgery and gender reassignment surgery.